Data created to maintain knowledge of seed collections in frozen vaults play a role in the meting out of intellectual property rights. Until the twentieth century, local farmers and breeder societies controlled crop selection, breeding, and improvements. However, after the discovery of Mendelian genetics the improvement of crops was now understood to hinge on the discovery of useful plants that could be mined for their genes. The law that governs the acquisition and patenting of biological materials has moved in the direction dictated by industry and states’ national interests. For instance, the 1992 Convention on Biological Diversity recharacterised plants from ‘living things’ to ‘genetic resources’ that were sovereign national property. The mode that the information around genetic resources travels is through stories around the data rather than the objects themselves. Adding to the swirl of botanical extraction, digital DNA sequences also circulate as objects of inquiry.
Within my larger project on the history and practices of seed banking for conservation and food security, this paper focuses attention on the role that data play in understanding and maintaining collections of living things. With multiple possible systems of cladistics or phylogenetic classification, I show the archival strategies used to sort and store meta information about the plants. I ask, How do varying forms of relating to data prioritise plants, traits, and genes differently? Moreover, I dwell on the tenuous relationship between the physical objects that are stored in the banks and the data about them that are stored on servers. The complex systems that structure the data around banked seeds affects the security of the collection and the usefulness of the collection in the future.
Xan Chacko is a feminist science studies scholar who studies the history and practices of the production and diffusion of botanical knowledge in the twentieth century. Xan joined the TC Beirne School of Law at the University of Queensland, Australia, in 2018 as a Research Fellow in the Australian Research Council Laureate project ‘Harnessing Intellectual Property to Build Food Security’. Her current research compares different approaches to seed banking by studying the everyday tasks of collecting, sorting, and saving seeds, as well as, the organisation of physical, digital, and intellectual property of the banked seeds.
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